One of them gives meaning, and the other – form; one is unity, reality, and the other is unity and necessity. – KESKIN WHEELS

One of them gives meaning, and the other – form; one is unity, reality, and the other is unity and necessity.

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One of them gives meaning, and the other – form; one is unity, reality, and the other is unity and necessity.

They are given to us in thinking, and philosophy is the science of pure thinking, that is, knowledge for which thought is the first and unconditional trust, which experience serves only as an external and negative point, but the truth of which does not depend on experience, because, conversely, true experience depends on his attitude to thought. With this pure thinking, philosophy differs from all the positive, empirical sciences, seeks to complete them, to reduce them to the unity of worldview, to inform them of the integrity, completeness, completeness. Philosophy gives an opinion to any kind of activity, determines the understanding of its meaning and significance. Hence its true purpose for the sciences: to reveal the mental consciousness, to give thoughts and concepts space, consistency, harmony.

From the point of view of O. Novitsky, philosophy as a science of pure thinking, dealing with the general forms and laws of existence, can not take the latter directly from experience. They are first considered by our mind in itself as its own nature of contemplation, as the laws of unity in our own ideals, as ideas. Drawing knowledge of the universal laws and forms of existence from the self-activity of our mind, from its ideas, philosophy does not reject the participation of other forces of the soul. On the contrary, they all help philosophy, they all want to become organs of its divination.

Feelings give philosophy an unlimited variety of nature and phenomena of our own inner world; reason creates for her a new world of thought, which reduces all the variety of phenomena to two main principles – matter and spirit, but all this only so that the mind illuminates this dual world with its highest light of ideas and brought into it life, unity and harmony, philosophy requires the eternal, the imperishable, and the eternal and the imperishable are revealed only in ideas; philosophy requires the necessary, the infinite, and the ultimate is reflected in ideas.

Finally, philosophy requires the unchanging, the essential, and the essential is reflected in the ideas. „The world of ideas,“ concludes O. Novitsky, „is the birthplace of philosophy. There she is born, from here she draws her strength and appears in the strange world as a forerunner of the upper“ (Gam. – P. 23 ).

As for experience and contemplation, it is indisputable for O. Novytsky that experience and speculation act simultaneously, together. One of them gives meaning, and the other – form; one is unity, reality, and the other is unity and necessity. In the internal connection and course of thought, philosophy reflects the unity and system of reason, and in the external forms of methods reflects the logical forms of reason, appearing in its development as a matter of humanity.

In response to accusations about the harmfulness of philosophy for the state and religion, O. Novitsky noted in Schelling’s words that if this is indeed the case, then the blame for this should fall on religion itself and on the state, the conditions in which philosophy operates. „All great people,“ he emphasized, „and especially those who are engaged in philosophy, are representatives of their people, they, as in focus, only concentrate in themselves what is already scattered among the people, lead to consciousness, which is already hidden in the spirit. “ people’s dark and unaccountable.

Thus, if philosophers reflect in their teachings the harmful directions of the spirit, it is natural because such a spirit is represented to them by the people; they return to him what they have received from him, they return only in a second, more developed form; it is an outflow of trends of popular thoughts and feelings, only by efforts of new tension of thought, more powerful and active.

Only under such conditions can philosophical teaching have a significant impact on the people; only then does he admire philosophical ideas, only then does he accept them with lively participation and assimilate them with admiration when he finds in them the imprint of his own concepts and sensibilities.

Otherwise, philosophical ideas, the highest and brightest, will remain unknown, as alien to the spirit of the people; they will not take root in public opinion, like a plant in an uncharacteristic soil; the most expressive and sincere prophecies of philosophers will not find sympathy for themselves, they will freeze there with a lonely sound in empty space. The influence of the people’s spirit on philosophy is certainly as much as the effect of philosophy on the further development of the concepts of the people. So it has always been and will be with philosophy … So it was with her in France in the XVIII century. It was not the philosophers who corrupted the people and brought them to the horrors of free-thinking and arbitrariness, but the people corrupted and corrupted those who could be philosophers by their own will. „

As for O. Novitsky’s views, perceiving or not perceiving them, the interpretation of philosophy as a science, its purpose, historical and philosophical process, we should still remember his words: „Philosophy itself is a delicate plant that requires not only a decent soil for it., but also a decent atmosphere … Only there it flourishes, blooms and bears fruit, where it finds attention and compassion, general affection and assistance.On the contrary, she soon dies down amid the general prejudices against her; her world prematurely declines in indifference to her, and her meager fruit seems wild and tasteless without warm heartfelt participation in it. This is necessary: ​​where the general opinion recognizes philosophy as useless, there it becomes insignificant contrary to its own nature.

S. Gogotsky. S. Gogotsky called his views theistic, and considered philosophy itself as a speculative-moral science, a continuous process of efforts to bring thought to unity and a clear understanding of what is given in various forms of our consciousness and life. As such, it is the highest form of human consciousness to comprehend the various elements that make up the primordial excitation in every living being.

S. Gogotsky associated the emergence of philosophy with the activity of consciousness, the instinct of human initiative, which is inherent in its inner nature. In the lower stages of inner life, this instinct is manifested without realizing the laws of conformity of crafts, appears as an arbitrary game of images and ideas.

Since the inner life of man is constantly characterized by divination of the cause in the form of phenomena and mental ascent to the infinite and eternal in the form of boundaries and limitations, in the first stages still undeveloped thought embodies the causes of phenomena and the idea of infinity only in images taken from the same world. „Only there,“ noted S. Gogotsky, „where there is a self-consciousness of thought before the outside world, is determined by its relation to it, only there is confirmed the beginning and the possibility of the higher and more diverse science, which we call philosophy. „

Gogotsky connects the concept of „history“ with the concept of „development“, considering history itself as the achievement of the moral world, which completes the development of the physical world, and from its top, its color and fruit gives meaning and spirit to the boundless mass of physical nature. Without this morality, which is aware of its purpose and its goals, the purpose of all nature, the physical world would be like a body without a heart and head.

„In historical life,“ says Gogotsky, „each generation carries out its work in the given reserve of forces, regardless of its vision and arbitrariness, and yet at the same time each generation uses conscious efforts for self-education and self-improvement. This shows that in the history of the coupling of historical phenomena reconciles the causal course of things with the course of their expediency and planning, ie in history repeats on a large scale the same as in the development of each person – the transition from this and passive state of moral forces. He sees the key to history in the depths of morality and religion, self-awareness and feelings.

The problem of the relationship between philosophy and religion is solved by S. Gogotsky as follows. Philosophy and religion have common points of contact in the sense that, as in philosophy, the phenomena of physical nature and moral nature are considered not in themselves, but as phenomena in their causal relationship, but in relation to other principles, and in religion the world phenomena is the subject of attention not in itself, but in relation to its highest cause and ultimate goal. However, the form of religious works does not coincide with the forms of philosophy. Religious works are more dominated by feelings and ideas adapted to general understanding, while philosophical works are presented in the form of abstract concepts. There is a direct exaltation of thought to the first principle of any being, and here – a constant process of inference.

Religious works are based mainly on faith and revelation, which are the basis for the life of the mind, while philosophical works are entirely devoted to the study and search for the foundations of external belief in the very nature of spiritual life and the laws of thought … In general, as a thinker of religious composition, S. Gogotsky still defends the concept of two truths in a peculiar way, also asserting the independence of philosophy.

P. Linitsky. P. Linitsky’s own understanding of the essence of philosophy begins with the disclosure of the term „philosophize“, considering it as reasoning, reflection, where „to philosophize means to reason.“ However, he clarifies that not every reasoning is philosophizing, because most often a person reflects on practical needs, finding ways and means to meet them.

The purpose of such reasoning is one’s own benefit, or benefit. You can think about your attitude to others, but it will be prudence, not philosophizing, because you have to subject everything to some general conditions, forms of life and concepts about it. And although some of these considerations contradict the truth, people still hold on to them for the sake of practical interests.

A person who thinks is different from others or from those who do not think that habits do not dominate him. She acknowledges one and rejects the other not because one is habitual and the other is not, but because she is convinced of the truth of one and the falsity of the other. The activity of such a person is no longer guided by the desire to benefit himself or another, but solely by the love of truth, truth, conviction, where the benefit for him – a secondary issue. Such people are called sages, and their thinking, which prevails over others, is called wisdom.

In understanding philosophy, it is important to consider another point. The Christian religion also imparts to us a higher and perfect knowledge of what our knowledge should be, but does not release man from the obligation through self-reflection to find out for himself more and more, to understand deeper and deeper the idea of higher purpose, responsibilities of life, as required in this regard.

Reflection becomes philosophical only when it comes to philosophical ideas.

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