It is also important to know that the goals of the enterprise (firm) will be a significant part of strategic planning if they are not only properly formulated and effectively systematized, but also sufficiently informed about all staff and developed an effective system to stimulate their implementation …
The main activities of the enterprise
In the practice of management, each enterprise (firm), which is a complex production and economic system, carries out many specific activities, which on the basis of kinship can be combined into separate main areas.
In accordance with the logic and sequence of stages of the reproduction process, the defining direction of each enterprise in market relations is the study of the commodity market, or situational analysis. Such an analysis should include a comprehensive study of the market, the level of competitiveness and product prices, other requirements of buyers of goods, methods of demand formation and channels of trade, external and internal environment of the enterprise.
The results of the study of the goods market serve as a starting point for substantiating specific ways to improve and develop the innovative activity of the enterprise (firms) for the future. Innovative activity includes scientific preparation and technical developments, technological and design of production, introduction of technical, organizational and other innovations, formation of investment policy for the next years, determination of the volume of necessary investments, etc.
The next most difficult direction in terms of volume and solution of organizational and technical problems is the production activity of the enterprise (firm), its organization and operational regulation in space and time. Among all set of constantly carried out actions making production activity, the most important should be considered:
substantiation of the volume of production of a certain range and range in accordance with market needs; formation of marketing programs for individual markets and each type of product, their optimization in relation to the production capacity of the enterprise; balancing production capacity and production program for the current and each subsequent year of the forecast period; providing production with the necessary material and technical resources; development and observance of time-agreed operational-calendar schedules of production.
The efficiency of innovation and production processes, constantly carried out at each enterprise (firm), is determined by the level of his (her) commercial activity, the importance of which in market conditions increases significantly. This is obvious, because the scale and quality of this area of activity of the enterprise largely depends on the financial efficiency of production, which is most fully characterized by the amount of profit.
A necessary condition for achieving the desired success of commercial activity is effective advertising and direct organization of sales of its products, the development of a system of commodity exchanges, some incentives for buyers.
Another important area of activity of the enterprise (firm), which completes the successive cycle of the reproduction process, should be considered after-sales service of many types of goods-machines and equipment, cars, computer, reproduction, medical, complex household appliances; other products for industrial, technical and consumer purposes.
After-sales service includes commissioning work in the field of operation (use) of goods purchased on the market, their warranty maintenance for a certain period, providing the necessary spare parts and repairs during the standard service life and more. It is the most important source of information for producers on the reliability and durability of manufactured hardware, as well as operating costs, which are then used by them to improve their products, optimize the timing of updating its range and range.
The economic activity of the enterprise (firm) belongs to the integrated direction covering many concrete kinds. In particular, it includes: strategic and current planning, accounting and reporting, pricing, wage system, resource provision of production, foreign economic and financial activities and more.
This direction permeates all other areas of activity, is crucial for the assessment and regulation of all elements in the management system of the enterprise. The content of certain types of economic activity of the enterprise (firm) is covered in more detail in other sections of this textbook.
Social activity is of interesting narrative essay topics paramount importance because it significantly affects the effectiveness of all its other general areas and specific types. The effectiveness of innovative production, commercial and economic activities of the enterprise directly depends on the level of training and competence of all categories of employees, the effectiveness of the applied motivational mechanism, constantly maintained at the appropriate level of working conditions and life of the workforce … Therefore, effective personnel management should be a priority and the most important area of activity of each enterprise (firm) in a socially oriented market economy.
Legal bases of enterprise functioning. Law of Ukraine "On Enterprises in Ukraine". Company charter and collective agreement
Areas of activity are interconnected and together characterize a strategy of operation and development of the enterprise, the mechanism of its management. The enterprise (firm) must operate and manage within the legislation governing all areas of its (her) activities. Among the large number of legal acts, the Law of Ukraine on Enterprises and the company’s charter are decisive, as well as the collective agreement agreed with the current legislation, which regulates the relations of the labor collective with the administration of the enterprise (firm) …
Law on Enterprises. The Law "On Enterprises in Ukraine", which regulates the activities of various types of enterprises, was adopted by the session of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on March 27, 1991. This law: determines the types and organizational forms of enterprises, the rules of their creation and liquidation, the mechanism of their entrepreneurial activity; creates equal legal conditions for the activities of enterprises regardless of the form of property ownership and management system; ensures the independence of enterprises, clearly fixes their rights and responsibilities in carrying out economic activities, regulates relations with other economic entities and the state. Creation, registration, liquidation and reorganization of the enterprise. Any enterprise can be created:
in accordance with the decision of the owner (owners) of the property or the body authorized by them (them), the founding organization; due to the forced division of another enterprise in accordance with applicable antitrust law; by separating from the existing enterprise one or more structural units by decision
Their labor collectives and the consent of the property owner (authorized body). The company has the right to create its branches (representative offices, branches or other separate units) with current and current accounts in the bank.
Each established enterprise is subject to state registration at its location in the relevant executive committee of the Council of People’s Deputies for a fee. To do this, the company submits to the local authority an application, the founder’s decision on establishment, the charter and other documents specified by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. Data on state registration are reported to the ministries of economy and statistics, the enterprise itself is entered in the state register of Ukraine.
The enterprise must be liquidated (reorganized) in the following cases: taking the appropriate decision by the owner of the property, declaring it bankrupt, prohibiting activities for non-compliance with the conditions established by law.
Liquidation of the enterprise is carried out by the liquidation commission created by the owner or the body authorized by him, and in case of bankruptcy – by court or arbitration. Such an action is reported in the official press with the definition of the terms of claims against the liquidated enterprise. The liquidation commission must assess the available property of such an enterprise, settle with creditors, draw up and transfer to the owner a liquidation balance sheet. The enterprise is considered liquidated (reorganized) from the moment of its exclusion from the state register of Ukraine.
General principles of enterprise management and self-government of the labor collective
The management of the enterprise is carried out in accordance with its charter on the basis of a combination of the rights of the property owner and the principles of self-government of the labor collective. The owner exercises his rights to manage the enterprise directly or through authorized bodies. Management rights can be delegated to the board of the enterprise (board). The supreme governing body of a collective enterprise is the general meeting (conference) of property owners, and the executive functions are performed by the board.
The company independently determines the management structure, establishes the staff of functional, production and other units. The owner directly hires (appoints, elects) the head of the enterprise. A contract (agreement, contract) is concluded with the head, which determines the terms of employment, rights, duties and responsibilities, conditions of material support and dismissal. The head appoints and dismisses his deputies, managers and specialists of structural units of the enterprise.
The labor collective of the enterprise operates (manages) according to the principles of self-government. This means that he has specific powers to address a wide range of issues on economic and social activities of the enterprise. In particular, the labor collective with the right to hire employees considers, approves or participates in resolving issues related to:
draft collective agreement; providing social benefits to certain categories of staff; motivation for productive work, requests for employee nominations for government awards.
The labor collective of the enterprise, where the share of the state or local authority in the value of the property exceeds 50 percent, together with the founder or owner: considers changes and additions to the charter of the enterprise; determines the terms of employment of the head of the enterprise; decides on the lease of the enterprise, its joining or leaving the voluntary association, the creation of a new enterprise based on the use of certain structural units.