Such a shell, the immediate reality of thinking is language and speech. – KESKIN WHEELS

Such a shell, the immediate reality of thinking is language and speech.

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Such a shell, the immediate reality of thinking is language and speech.

Thus, multiplying the concepts of "noun" and "verb" we obtain a new concept, the name of which will be "noun and verb" and the volume is an empty set, because there are no words that would be both verbs and nouns …

Multiplying compatible concepts, we obtain a new concept, in the scope of which we think of real existing (or existing) objects.

As a result of multiplication of two cross concepts, a new concept is obtained, the scope of which will be narrower than the scope of one of the original concepts. Thus, multiplying the concepts of "driver" and "football player" we get a new concept of "driver and football player" or "driver-football player".

The scope of the new concept obtained by multiplying the concepts that are in relation to subordination, coincides with the scope of the subordinate concept. Thus, multiplying the concepts of "lawyer" and "prosecutor" we obtain the concept of "lawyer and prosecutor" whose volume is equal to the volume of "prosecutor" because only prosecutors are both prosecutors and lawyers.

The new concept, which is formed by multiplying identical concepts, coincides in volume with any original concept. Thus, multiplying the concepts of "representation" and "reproduction in the memory of the appearance of objects" we obtain the concept of "representation and reproduction in the memory of the appearance of objects" whose volume is equal to both the first and second original concepts (alone). After all, every idea, and only the idea, is a reproduction in the memory of the appearance of objects.

Subtraction (denial) of concepts – an operation with concepts, by which by denying the concept of "a" form a new concept of "no-a" the volume of which in sum with the volume of the concept of "a" is the set of the subject area that we think.

Thus, having the concept of "number of a natural series" the volume of which covers the entire relevant subject area, and mentally selecting part of the volume with the concept of "prime number" we get the remainder (difference) – "difficult number ". That is why the operation is called subtraction.

Sometimes subtraction is called such a logical operation, in the process of which "no-a" is specified. Thus, the 3 original concept of "season" subtraction operation can be performed in two ways. The first: "spring" – "spring". Second: "spring" – "summer" "autumn" "winter".


The essence of concepts in logic. Abstract

A concept is a form of thinking that reflects objects in their general and essential features

Signs are all that distinguishes objects from each other or similar to each other. Essential is a set of features of the object, each of which is necessary, and all together are sufficient to distinguish this object (or set of objects) from any other. Thus, the knowledge that a square has the characteristics of a rhombus and a rectangle, makes it possible to distinguish it (square) from any other geometric shapes.

Concepts and ideas. Revealing the specifics of the concept, it is compared with other forms of thinking (with judgment and inference), as well as with the imagination – the most perfect form of sensory reflection of reality. The question may arise: why not with feelings and perceptions? Because representations are much more similar to the concept than sensation and perception.

First, the latter occur in direct human contact with objects of the material world and immediately "fade". And ideas, as well as concepts, are constantly in the human mind. However, they (representations) have to be actualized, lifted from "archives of memory" as representations are reproduction in memory of appearance of those subjects which were perceived earlier. Thanks to ideas, a person can freely operate with sensory-visual images of objects.

And secondly, representations are sensory images of things which (images) have already undergone preliminary mental processing.

Concepts, as well as ideas, reflect objects, phenomena and their features. However, there are significant differences between them. It is believed that the concept reflects many objects, and the idea – only one object. This, of course, concerns perception. And the idea is more complicated at least because there is a moment of generalization. In the representation, as a rule, "erased" individual uniqueness will be perceived, and sometimes there is a conscious generalization, grouping of images of objects in a complex representation. In addition, logic recognizes the fact of the existence of individual concepts, which brings them closer to ideas.

Concepts and ideas differ in content. Concepts are often called abstract, and ideas – concrete. But the specificity of the image implies not only the richness of the reflected features (representation, as a rule, reflects more features than concepts), but also their coordination and subordination. In the representation, the reflected features of objects are coordinated, but not subordinated, in particular, the essential features are not differentiated from insignificant. In other words, the representation is "diffusion" -concrete.

It is believed that the concepts reflect the features that are simultaneously general, essential, necessary, internal and indirect, and representations – single, insignificant, accidental, external, direct; that the concept includes signs that are inaccessible to the senses; that the meaning of the concepts is clearly outlined; that thanks to the concepts a person penetrates deeper into the very essence of things, acquires the ability to practically influence them, to change them. In general, this is so, although in representations, as already noted, there is a moment of generalization and comprehension of essential features (at least conditionally significant). This is especially true of ideas that accompany moral, aesthetic, political, and other evaluations.

The content of ideas has an individual, subjective shade, as it depends on one’s own life experience, mental characteristics of a person and so on. Imaginations are images of things that are used primarily for "personal use." And concepts are prepared from the very beginning for others (and therefore for themselves), for communication. From them everything subjective is eliminated (removed). They have a universal character. This is facilitated by the consolidation of the concept by the appropriate term. Representations are not necessarily objectified by means of language, and when they are transmitted by means of language, as a rule, many lose in content, individual uniqueness, and so on.

It is difficult to exaggerate the role of ideas in human life. They are the material "raw material" from which mental images are made, including concepts. Thanks to ideas, a person recognizes objects and phenomena that he previously perceived, distinguishes them, orients himself in the material world.

Comparing the images of the present, given in feelings and perceptions, with ideas about the past and penetrating mentally into the future in its sensual "dress", she comprehends the passage of time. Man constantly has to compare the meaning of concepts with the relevant ideas. However, in this situation a mistake is possible, which is manifested in particular in the fact that ideas are taken as concepts, which creates the illusion of real, ie theoretical, knowledge. And this must be taken into account.

Human ideas are qualitatively different from animal ideas. In the representations of man contained in the "filmed" form of life experience, practice, and through them – and the result of mental knowledge of the world.

Concept and word (name)

Thinking does not exist outside the material shell. Such a shell, the immediate reality of thinking is language and speech. The concept is expressed by a word, a phrase, or even a whole sentence – a noun. A word is a sound or graphic complex to which the corresponding subject meaning (denotation) and

Is there an opinion that the direct reality of thinking is not language but speech.

meaning, that is, thought. Meaning connects the word with the corresponding object, and the word acts as a direct representative of this object, carrying a certain meaning. The indifference of the sound and graphic aspects of the word in relation to the get lab report written essence of the objects they denote, makes it possible to identify and generalize the properties of these objects.

The word has its meaning and significance. Its meaning is the subject that is presented by this word. Two words (or groups of words) are identical in meaning if they denote the same object. Thus, the expressions "author of" Kobzar "and" T. G. Shevchenko "are identical and have the same meaning.

The word at the same time expresses the corresponding meaning (meaning). The latter is not limited to the meaning of the concept. The fact is that there can be several concepts about the same subject. And they can all be attached to the same word (say, the concept of "water" for physicists and chemists will be different in meaning).

In addition, the concepts reflect only general and essential features, and the word should present the subject with any of its features that interest a person. Words used to express opinions must have a clear meaning and a clear meaning, otherwise the exchange of ideas between people will be impossible or at least ineffective.

To avoid differences in the interpretation of the meanings of the words used, each science develops its own terminology.

A term is a word or group of words that denotes one subject (or a certain group of subjects) and is used in a given science with one clearly defined meaning and corresponding meaning.

The scientific term denotes a particular subject (or class of subjects) and expresses the concept of it. The set of terms used in a science is its terminology.

Since the concept of non-word does not exist, it may be thought that they are in an extremely rigid relationship, even in relation to identity. However, the concept and the word differ in nature (the word is material, and the concept is ideal), and the relationship between them is somewhat conditional. This is evidenced by the fact that the same concepts in different national languages ​​are denoted by different words; and the presence of such phenomena as homonymy and synonymy; and the fact that one concept is often expressed not in one word but in a whole phrase.

Since modern logic has created a whole theory of names, let’s get acquainted with its elements. This need is also due to the fact that the understanding of the word as it has just been described does not completely coincide with the definition of "name": "Name" is an illogical term that denotes any object or class of objects. "

From the theory of names

All meaningful expressions of natural language can be considered as signs that are bearers of names.

Name – an expression of natural or artificial, formalized language, denoting a particular object or class of objects (denotation).

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